Disability Benefits


These executive summaries were compiled from EMPLOYEE BENEFITS INFOSOURCE database, a source for information on employee benefits and human resources.

The ADA at 25: Where We've Been, Where We Are and Where We're Going.
Hyman, Jonathan T.; Leave and Disability Coordination Handbook; v19 no1 pp 2, 10-11 Sept 2015; journal article

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Abstract : The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was enacted July 26, 1990 and was created to ban discrimination of individuals with disabilities in areas of employment, public services, transport and telecommunication. However, some important cases in 1999 such as Sutton v. United Airlines, Murphy v. United Parcel Service and Albertson's, Inc. v. Kirkingburg held that an employee's disability did not fit the ADA if it could be corrected with things such as prescription medications or eyeglasses. In Toyota Motor Mfg., Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams it was decided that to be considered disabled, one must have trouble carrying out tasks of daily living, not just tasks related to employment. In 2009 President George H.W. Bush worked to redefine disability and undo barriers these cases created. The ADA now focuses solely on defending people with disability and making sure they have all the reasonable accommodations the ADA Amendments Act requires, through an interactive process between the employer and employee. The growing list of applicable disabilities includes cancer, asthma, diabetes and major depression.

Disability Plan's Limitations for Mental Disorders Upheld.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no8 pp 57, 66 Aug 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : An employee filed for long-term disability benefits due to multiple symptoms diagnosed as Lyme disease under one set of criteria but not by the Centers for Disease Control standards. His psychiatrist diagnosed him with major depressive disorder and other psychological conditions. He was granted 24 months of benefits in accordance with plan terms when mental disabilities are involved. On internal appeal seeking an extension, employee insisted his limitations resulted from Lyme disease, but the employer's independent expert determined any disability was not physical. In Dutkewych v. Standard Insurance Company et al. the defendant insurer stressed the plan's mental disorder limitation, when psychological conditions contribute to any disability. The court found the insurer did not abuse discretion, and the First Circuit Appeals Court upheld, finding the insurer's decision based on the plan limitation not to be arbitrary or capricious.

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Other Recent Decisions.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no8 pp 69-70 Aug 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : In McDonough v. Aetna Life Insurance Company et al. the First Circuit Appeals Court vacated the lower court's summary judgment for the defendant. After suffering strokelike symptoms, the plaintiff was granted long-term disability benefits but was determined to be no longer disabled a year later, based on his physician's opinion that he could perform sedentary work. The appeals court found the decision to end benefits failed to consider the requirements of the plaintiff's job. In Medford v. Prudential Insurance Company of America et al. the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania granted summary judgment for the plaintiff. The plaintiff elected life insurance coverage for himself and his wife. The wife died while the plaintiff was on short-term disability leave, but the defendant insurer denied benefits, claiming the plaintiff was not actively at work. The court found the plan document ambiguous and the plan administrator's decision to be arbitrary, capricious and an abuse of discretion. In Leon-Serrano et al. v. Northwestern Selecta, Inc. the plaintiff employee and welfare plan beneficiaries asserted the defendant employer failed to provide adequate notification about the availability of COBRA. Though the defendant sent notices to the plaintiff employee's beneficiaries, the recipients challenged the timing and adequacy of the notice, partly because it failed to state each qualified beneficiary had an independent right to elect COBRA coverage or explain ramifications of declining. The court granted summary judgment for the plaintiffs.

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Understanding the Social Security Family Maximum.
Romig, Kathleen; Shoffner, Dave; Social Security Bulletin; v75 no3 pp 1-13 Aug 2015; journal article

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Abstract : Rules for calculating the family maximum benefits for survivors, spouses and children of Social Security recipients are complex and have changed over time. Beneficiaries may be entitled to benefits of different types and from several earnings records, and benefits vary for disability and by earnings level. Beneficiaries for Disability Insurance face tighter rules for the family maximum than Old-Age and Survivors Insurance beneficiaries. For beneficiary families receiving retirement and survivor benefits family maximum rules apply only if three or more family members receive benefits, and auxiliary beneficiaries receive reduced benefits. Reductions imposed by the family maximum can be significant, about 33 percent for families of disabled workers, 23 percent for survivor families and 14 percent for families of retired workers.

How Long Do You Have to Keep an Employee's Job Open for Him or Her?
Panaro, Gerard P.; HR Advisor: Legal & Practical Guidance; v21 no4 pp 51-57 Jul-Aug 2015; journal article

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Abstract : Employers are often required under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), state laws, worker compensation laws and even their own policies to hold an employee's position during an excused absence, but not without limits. FMLA leave is up to 12 weeks in most cases or 26 weeks to care for a covered servicemember. The ADA's interactive process to find a reasonable accommodation may extend for months with no clear end point. A request for indefinite leave may not be reasonable, but an employer must be consistent in treatments of requests, past accommodations and explanations and should have a reasonable expectation that the employee will return to work. Terminating an employee who has exhausted all medical leave can backfire if the condition qualifies for ADA protection. Several legal cases illustrate the fine points of timing and accommodations.

Other Recent Decisions.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no7 pp 67-69 Jul 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : In Perez v. Harris et al. the Secretary of the DOL, as plaintiff, alleged the defendant company's chief executive officer (CEO) failed to remit health plan payments to the insurance company. After a magistrate judge recommended denying summary judgment for the plaintiff, the plaintiff complained the definition of fiduciary was misstated in that judge's report. Finding the key question to be whether the CEO actually exercised fiduciary authority, the District Court for Minnesota accepted the magistrate judge's report despite the misstatement. In Silvaggio v. Cement Masons Local 526 Pension Fund the District Court for Western Pennsylvania ruled against the plaintiff, the wife of a deceased plan participant, who alleged breach of fiduciary duty for the plan's failure to reconfirm the participant's pension benefit election before he died. The election of a 50 percent joint and survivor option yielded higher benefits during his 20-year retirement but dropped to 50 percent for the spouse upon the participant's death. Plan documents specified that the 50 percent option was the default without a valid election. In Corrigan v. Local 6, Bakery, Confectionary and Tobacco Workers et al. the plaintiff contended he never received a COBRA notice that the plan administrator mailed to his last known address. The District Court for Eastern Pennsylvania noted the administrator's good faith compliance with COBRA notice requirements, which stop short of assuring receipt of notice. In Spence v. Union Security Insurance Company, the plaintiff was denied disability benefits initially and on appeal. Though the defendant's final denial stated the case was closed, the plaintiff sued for unpaid benefits nearly a year later. The defendant responded that the complaint was well past the plan's limitations period. The District Court for Oregon ruled that, since the defendant's determination letter failed to inform the plaintiff of his right to bring civil action after a denial, the limitations period was never triggered. In Montoya v. Reliance Standard Life Insurance Company et al. the plaintiff sought full access to reports of independent medical examinations arranged by the defendant insurer for the plaintiff's disability benefits claim. The District Court for the Northern District of California cited the DOL's regulation that documents used for an initial benefit determination must be shared, but those generated through appeal do not need to be shared until after the appeal decision is made.

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Recovery of Benefits Under Section 502(a)(3) of ERISA Denied.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no7 pp 58-59 Jul 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : In Rochow et al. v. Life Insurance Company of North America the plaintiff estate representatives sought recovery from the defendant insurer that denied disability benefits to a plan participant. The participant suffered symptoms in 2001, was demoted and terminated for nonperformance in 2002, promptly diagnosed with a brain infection and filed for long-term disability benefits. The claim was denied since the participant was not employed when the disability started. The participant filed suit to recover benefits under ERISA Section 502(a)(1)(B) and address an alleged breach of fiduciary duty under Section 404(a). The district court and Sixth Circuit Appeals Court ruled for the participant in 2004. After the participant's death in 2008, the plaintiffs won an additional $2.8 million for profits the defendant earned on benefits not paid to the participant, with the award upheld on appeal as appropriate equitable relief under Section 502(a)(3). In 2014 the defendant sought rehearing on the plaintiffs' entitlement to recovery through both Sections 502(a)(1)(B) for wrongful denial and 502(a)(3) for equitable relief. The Sixth Circuit found the equitable relief award inappropriate since other means of redress were available. The denial of benefits was already remedied through Section 502(a)(1). The court vacated the unjust enrichment award and remanded the case for consideration of prejudgment interest.

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Short-Term Disability Plan Was a Payroll Practice Not Subject to ERISA.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no7 p 62 Jul 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : In Schra v. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company the plaintiff employee applied for and was granted short-term disability (STD) benefits with two extension periods before the defendant insurer informed her that her benefits claim would be withdrawn. The plaintiff asserted she was told STD benefits still active on a certain date would roll into long-term disability (LTD) benefits automatically. The withdrawal of STD benefits came one month prior to that date. The plaintiff appealed unsuccessfully and sued, alleging abuse of discretion. The defendant argued the plaintiff had never filed for LTD benefits. The plaintiff requested to refile her suit, changing the suit for LTD benefits to seek renewal of her short-term benefits under ERISA Section 502(a)(1)(B). The defendant stated the STD plan was not an ERISA plan but a payroll practice plan, to which the court agreed, leaving no justification for the plaintiff to amend her complaint. The plaintiff argued a long term benefits application would have been futile, but the court noted she did not raise that argument at the appropriate time.

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Disability Tab Shifting to Workers.
Pallarito, Karen; Business Insurance; v49 no13 pp 17-18 suppl. Summer 2015; journal article

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Abstract : Under half of private employers offer disability insurance for their employees, with little change from about 2000 through 2015, but more firms are requiring employees to share the cost. In 2012 LIMRA International Inc. reported that 43 percent of employers offered short-term disability, but only 35 percent paid the full premium, and disability coverage, especially short term, was a voluntary benefit for 23 percent of employees. Some employers reduce coverage to just half of an employee's salary. Hybrid products enabling employers to customize the benefit are emerging, with the option for employees to pay for extra coverage. With these shifts, the need for education on the importance of financial protection during times of disability grows stronger, as do benefits to help employees return to work sooner.

Insurer Did Not Abuse Discretion in Denying Long-Term Benefits.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no5 p 55 May 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : The Fifth Circuit Appeals Court upheld the lower court's grant of summary judgment for the defendant in Killen v. Reliance Standard Life Insurance Company. The defendant did not extend the two years of disability benefits for the plaintiff's rotator cuff injury because she did not meet the definition of totally disabled, being unable to perform any job for which she was qualified. The plaintiff's primary physician said she was incapable of holding down a job, but her orthopedist and a rehabilitation specialist found her able to perform sedentary work. The district court found no abuse of the plan administrator's discretion in denying the claim, and the Appeals Court concurred, finding the defendant attended to the abundant evidence, provided full and fair review and had no significant conflict of interest in its decision.

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Plan Participant Ineligible for Increased Disability Benefits.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no5 pp 57-58 May 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a lower court's finding that a disability plan administrator correctly followed plan terms in denying benefits for a plan participant. The plaintiff in Brake v. The Hutchinson Technology Incorporated Group Disability Income Insurance Plan bought disability insurance in 1988 and was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2000. When the plan changed insurers in 2005, she opted for extra coverage for her preexisting condition, but the buy up blocked coverage for a disability treated within the prior 12 months. The plaintiff filed for disability benefits in 2008 but was granted only core benefits since she had been treated within the previous 12 months. The courts rejected plaintiff assertions about South Dakota and Minnesota state statutes, noted the buy up option did not change the insurer or replace the previous policy and ultimately affirmed the defendant's interpretation of the policy.

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So Your Employee Has TRD...
Sullivan, Mike; von Heymann, Chris; Benefits Canada; v39 no5 pp 51-53 May 2015; journal article

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Abstract : Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a major depressive disorder that does not respond well to two or more courses of antidepressant therapy. Afflicting at least half of adults with major depression, it calls for special treatment, often a third course of treatment, an alternative antidepressant or combination with a second antidepressant therapy, along with counseling, psychotherapy or lifestyle changes. To support affected workers, employers should ensure their health and short- and long-term disability coverage provides the necessary benefits, avoids contradictory limits and facilitates return to work as appropriate. Analysis of claims data can reveal TRD and gauge severity. Research by Janssen, Great-West Life and Cubic Health provides incidence data and financial and health metrics that can guide decision making on benefit plan design.

ERISA Fiduciaries Have Duty to Seek Out Readily Available Information.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no4 p 57 Apr 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : After an initial thoracic surgery the plaintiff in Harrison v. Wells Fargo Bank N.A. et al. required additional, more complicated surgery and, in the same time frame, lost her husband to death, causing severe depression. The defendant employer and health plan rejected her claim for disability benefits. Through two internal appeals, the plaintiff provided documentation from her primary care physician, surgeon and psychologist. The defendant's independent reviewing physician failed to contact the psychologist and recommended denial without supporting records. The plaintiff sued for failure to consider all relevant records and to explain what was needed to complete her claim. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals found the defendant violated ERISA Section 503 by falling short of a full and fair review, ignoring medical information and basing its decision on an incomplete record. The case was remanded to the district court for reconsideration.

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FMLA v. ADA: The Stark Legal Differences Are in the Details.
Susser, Peter A.; Thompson's ADA Compliance Guide; v26 no4 pp 1, 6-7 Apr 2015; journal article

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Abstract : The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) both address serious health conditions and protected disabilities, but their protections differ in coverage scope and in applicability based on employer size. The FMLA applies to employers with 50 or more employees, requires a certain work history and protects up to 12 weeks of leave, while the ADA affects private employers with 15 or more workers and can apply at any time. The FMLA's protection can be triggered by an employee's own medical issue or that of close relatives, by a new baby or adopted child. The ADA focuses on the employee but bans discrimination stemming from a disabled relative. The ADA requires reasonable accommodations that are not an undue hardship for the employer. The FMLA has strict provisions around an employee's return to work. State rules may be tighter than the federal laws, and workers compensation, collective bargaining agreements and internal policies must be considered.

Strategies to Keep Aging Workers Young.
Brown, Susan; Benefits and Pensions Monitor; v25 no2 pp 40-42 Apr 2015; journal article

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Abstract : As the Canadian workforce ages, employers should support older workers to maintain their health, engagement and ongoing contributions to the organization. A proactive approach toward comprehensive wellness that addresses health risks and work environment issues geared to older people is needed. The program should include wellness, disease management, accommodations for disabilities, flexible work arrangements and assessment of psychosocial and multigenerational dynamics. Negative stereotypes should not confuse facts about productivity. Losing aging workers' expertise and dealing with employee turnover create significant expenses for the employer. Focusing early on preventing or minimizing the six costliest diseases by addressing risk factors and providing health screenings, affordable drugs to manage chronic disease and practical support programs contribute to older workers' ongoing productivity.

UK Workplace Update.
Beeby, Sarah; Higginbottom, Karen; Mackay, Annabel; Williams, Andy; Chalkley, Emily; International HR Journal; v24 no2 pp 24-33 Spring 2015; journal article

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Abstract : Employment law in the United Kingdom is being shaped in 2015 by elections, legal changes and court judgments. Collective redundancy consultation is key in two legal cases, rules on shared parental leave are changing, firms must be able to claw back bonuses in certain circumstances, caste discrimination will become illegal and exclusivity clauses in zero hour contracts will be banned. More than one in three U.K. workers anticipate changing jobs in 2015, signaling strong confidence in the job market while highlighting the need to focus on engagement, motivation and retention. High rates of absence due to sickness for minor illnesses demand an effective absence management policy, while legal cases reinforce the need for employers to make reasonable accommodations for chronic conditions and disability. With social media a growing and pervasive influence in business and networking, employers must consider data ownership and security issues and appropriate restrictive covenants.

Do EAPs Really Make a Difference?
Alderson, Patricia; Canadian HR Reporter; v28 no5 p 13 Mar 23, 2015; journal article

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Abstract : A study by Arete Human Services on the mental health status of Canadian workers before and three months after utilizing employee assistance program (EAP) services shows significant mental health improvements. Two-thirds of EAP users in the study reported moderate or worse depression, anxiety or stress and had performance and productivity issues. After EAP counseling the number dropped to 32 percent, and visits to public health care specialists fell. EAPs' counseling and referral services help employees cope with mental health issues and indirectly reduce short- and long-term disability costs, work conflicts and absenteeism. Statistics Canada reports that one fourth of Canadian employees feel chronic work stress, and the Mental Health Commission of Canada reports 70 percent of disability costs are tied to mental health concerns.

Cause of Action Accrues When Plan Participant Has Reason to Know of Claim's Clear Repudiation.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no3 pp 56, 58 Mar 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : The Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the lower court in Witt v. Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. et al., finding the plaintiff's actions seeking to reinstate disability benefits exceeded ERISA's time limitations. Two years after being granted disability benefits for life, the plaintiff failed to provide medical records to support his status, resulting in termination of benefits. He challenged the termination 12 years later and claimed he did not receive the defendants' request for supportive information. The dispute centered on the start of the six-year limitations period, whether originating shortly after the 1997 termination of benefits or with the 2012 final decision. The court ruled that, whether the plaintiff received the original denial letter or not, nonreceipt of benefits for 12 years gave a clear signal of denial, well before the later rejection stemming from the courtesy review of the claim.

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Claim for Equitable Surcharge to Remedy Breach of Fiduciary Duty Can Proceed.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no3 p 59 Mar 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : The District Court for the Northern District of California permitted the plaintiff in Zisk v. Gannette Company Income Protection Plan et al. to pursue his claim seeking equitable relief after the defendant allegedly mismanaged his disability claim. The plaintiff was awarded disability benefits after cancer treatment in 2000, but the defendant terminated benefits in 2012 for failure to provide updated medical records. The plaintiff appealed, asserting the defendant had provider contact information, then delivered the information himself. The defendant did not reinstate benefits, prompting the suit. The plaintiff sought other appropriate equitable relief under ERISA Section 502(a)(3). The court supported the plaintiff, stating such relief is available to individuals and that, with the decision in Cigna v. Amara opening the possibility of an equitable surcharge and another relevant case pending, the case would not be dismissed but allowed to proceed.

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Out of the Darkness.
Patton, Carol; Human Resource Executive; v29 no2 pp 46-48 Mar 2015; journal article

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Abstract : Depression is a common but overlooked condition affecting one in ten adults, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the top disabling condition in the U.S. and Canada. Employers see absenteeism and presenteeism cutting into productivity. Some human resource professionals are tackling the issue directly to overcome the stigma and encourage those affected to seek help. Nearly one in four of 1,000 employees surveyed in 2014 reported being diagnosed with depression at some point in their lives. Antianxiety and antidepressant drugs top lists for medication costs and disability claims soar, while employee assistance program utilization is meager. Efforts to bring depression into the open through manager training and employee education have helped raise awareness and resource development. The recognition process should include a critical look at potential contributing factors in the workplace.

The Return of Integrated Disability Management.
Rousmaniere, Peter; Risk Management; 5 pp Feb 2, 2015; journal article

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Abstract : The concept of integrated disability management emerged in the 1990s but gained little traction, due to bureaucratic siloes separating insurers and service providers and inadequate information systems. In the 2010s the idea has reemerged as total absence management. The change has been driven by mandated absence benefits, risk of litigation for noncompliance, improved technology and engaged service providers. Employers are showing significantly more interest in the approach, prompting expansion in services offered. The case of Sutter Health, a California healthcare system, illustrates the value of managing employee absence proactively and consistently through integrated disability management, using a single, master, self-service platform to handle nearly all absences. The successful transition required coordination of human resource professionals, payroll, metrics and technology.

2014 Benefits Benchmarking.
Mrkvicka, Neil; Benefits Magazine; v52 no1 pp 12-14 Jan 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : The fourth annual Employee Benefits Survey by the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, reflects responses from 571 organizations, almost 20 industries and small to very large firms. Two-thirds offer defined benefit pension plans and 61 percent offer defined contribution plans, primarily 401(k) plans in corporations and 457 plans for public employees. Automatic enrollment with three percent default deferral and target date investment funds have become common. Virtually all offer health care benefits, 73.1 percent through preferred provider organizations while 46.1 percent of corporations offer high-deductible health plans. Short-term disability benefits are offered by 77.9 percent and long-term benefits by 60.7 percent. Vacation is widely tied to years of service, and the average organization offers nine paid holidays annually. About two in five use paid-time-off banks. Extra and innovative benefits include on-site fitness centers, paid day off for birthdays, pets at work and subsidies for hybrid vehicles.

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Court of Appeals Lacks Jurisdiction Where District Court Does Not Issue Final Order.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no1 p 50 Jan 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : The plaintiff in Mead v. Reliastar Life Insurance Company sought long-term disability benefits for cervical disc disease that prevented her carrying on her own or any other occupation. When denied benefits for inability to perform her own occupation, the plaintiff filed the case. The district court remanded it to the administrator for consideration under the any occupation standard and closed the case, prompting the defendant to appeal. The defendant calculated benefits under the own occupation definition as required but denied benefits under the any occupation definition. The plaintiff was blocked from reopening the case in district court pending the appeal and sought to dismiss the appeal for lack of jurisdiction without a final district court decision. The Second Circuit Appeals Court ruled that the district court's remand order did not close the case and prevented the appeals court from assuming jurisdiction.

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Other Recent Decisions.
Benefits Magazine; v52 no1 pp 62-64 Jan 2015; journal article

Availability : International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
Abstract : In Barrett v. Citigroup, Inc. et al. the District Court for the Southern District of New York found the defendant employer did not abuse discretion by calculating employee benefits on the basis of Social Security Administration documentation when original payroll records could not be found. Coworker corroboration of salary would not provide objective proof. In Kosloff et al. v. Smith et al. the District Court for Kansas dismissed the plaintiffs' claims of fiduciary breach and embezzlement as time barred and/or preempted by ERISA. The plaintiffs asserted the defendants failed to provide annual funding notices and improperly shifted funds to another plan. The plaintiffs stated they had no access to supportive documents until after the statute of limitations expired, but the court found no information was actively concealed. In McCandless v. Standard Insurance Company the plaintiff sought review of a second denial of disability benefits after a previous denial based on an independent medical evaluation. The defendant failed to convey the plaintiff's additional documentation for review and had the same review specialist generate both denials. The Eastern Michigan District Court found the decision making procedures to be defective and remanded the case for further consideration. In Preville v. Pepsico Hourly Employees Retirement Plan the Southern District of New York granted summary judgment for the defendant denying long-term disability benefits, finding the plaintiff did not meet the plan's requirement to file for benefits within 30 days of notification of eligibility. The Southern District of New York found In Re UBS ERISA Litigation, a stock drop case, that the plaintiff lacked standing since she did not demonstrate personal financial injury, and she was not permitted to amend her complaint.

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Front-Line Managers Often Cause ADA Violations, EEOC Says.
Leave and Disability Coordination Handbook; v18 no2 pp 5, 9 Dec 2014; journal article

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Abstract : Chai Feldblum of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) explained the critical role of front line managers in avoiding violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). To lower the risk of ADA claims, managers must let employees know qualitative and quantitative measures of job performance and inform employees in a timely manner of any shortcomings, setting clear goals for improvement. A distinction must be made between essential job functions and the job-related qualification standards for a person to carry out those functions. Regular physical attendance may be a qualification standard but not a job function. Managers should recognize even if subtle or unexpressed requests for accommodation. With an employee having an obvious disability, managers can initiate the interactive process toward accommodation. Employers may request medical documentation and start a trial period of accommodation to test its effect and potential undue hardship.